Jennifer R. Fanning, Lauren Pasetes, in Intermittent Explosive Disorder, 2019. Information processing theory is the approach to the study of cognitive development evolved out of the American experimental tradition in psychology. There are many theories. Importantly, a meta-analysis of more than forty studies reports robust and significant associations between a hostile attribution of intent and aggressive behavior (de Castro, Veerman, Koops, Bosch, & Monshouwer, 2002). google_ad_client = "ca-pub-0233578030825481"; Therefore, the scientific evidence for effectiveness of intervention programs designed for reducing aggressive behavior of antisocial individuals is important. The evidence that alcohol does have pharmacological effects on aggressive behavior is substantial. Specifically, individuals with PTSD show increased blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) activity and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the amygdala (Liberzon et al., 1999; Rauch et al., 1996; Rauch et al., 2000; Shin et al., 2004; Shin et al., 2005) and insula (Rauch et al., 1996) and decreased response in OFC (Britton, Phan, Taylor, Fig, & Liberzon, 2005), medial PFC (Bremner, Narayan, et al., 1999; Bremner, Staib, et al., 1999; Shin et al., 2004; Shin et al., 2005), medial frontal gyrus (Shin et al., 2004), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) (Bremner, Narayan, et al., 1999; Bremner, Staib, et al., 1999; Britton et al., 2005; Lanius et al., 2001; Lanius et al., 2003; Shin et al., 2004), and thalamus (Lanius et al., 2001; Lanius et al., 2003) to trauma-related stimuli and non-trauma-related threat stimuli (e.g., emotional faces). This group suggested that abused children are more likely to develop deficient patterns of social information processing, which result in increased levels of aggression. These traits are stable from late childhood to early adolescence (Frick, Kimonis, Dandreaux, & Farrell, 2003) and predict adult psychopathy, controlling for childhood CPs and antisocial behaviors (Burke, Loeber, & Lahey, 2005). This model, developed in the 1960's and 1970's, conceptualizes children's mental processes through the metaphor of a computer processing, encoding, storing, and decoding data. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, The Clinician's Guide to Oppositional Defiant Disorder, 2019, Theories of oppositional defiant disorder, The Clinician's Guide to Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Dodge, 2006; Matthys, Vanderschuren, Schutter, & Lochman, 2012, Metacognition, Empathy, and Cognitive Biases in Schizophrenia and OCD, Carina Coulacoglou, Donald H. Saklofske, in, Psychometrics and Psychological Assessment, Hostile attributional bias is a type of attributional style that is based on, Dodge, Price, Bachorowski, & Newman, 1990, DeWall, Twenge, Gitter, & Baumeister, 2009, Bailey & Ostrov, 2008; Yeung & Leadbeater, 2007, Heather M. McDonough-Caplan, Theodore P. Beauchaine, in, Developmental Pathways to Disruptive, Impulse-Control and Conduct Disorders, Dodge, Price, Bachorowski, & Newman, 1990, Frick, Kimonis, Dandreaux, & Farrell, 2003, Christian, Frick, Hill, Tyler, & Frazer, 1997; Frick, Stickle, Dandreaux, Farrell, & Kimonis, 2005, Drinking Patterns, Alcohol Consumption, and Aggressive Behavior, Social Cognition in Intermittent Explosive Disorder, de Castro, Veerman, Koops, Bosch, & Monshouwer, 2002, Taft, Schumm, Marshall, Panuzio, & Holtzworth-Munroe, 2008, Cloitre, Stovall-McClough, Zorbas, & Charuvastra, 2008, Norris, Chen, Zhu, Small, & Cacioppo, 2004, Efficacy of Problem-Solving Therapy in Treating Mental Health Problems, Problem Solving Therapy in the Clinical Practice, Sukhodolsky, Kassinove, and Gorman (2004), Webster-Stratton, Reid, and Hammond (2001), Psychological Trauma and Intermittent Explosive Disorder, Brooks, Silove, Steel, Steel, & Rees, 2011, Chemtob, Roitblat, Hamada, Carlson, & Twentyman, 1988, Britton, Phan, Taylor, Fig, & Liberzon, 2005, Fettich, McCloskey, Look, & Coccaro, 2015, Anderson, Bechara, Damasio, Tranel, & Damasio, 1999, Coccaro, Sripada, Yanowitch, & Phan, 2011; Davidson, 2000, Coccaro, McCloskey, Fitzgerald, & Phan, 2007, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes.